Spiral amplifiers in a-Al2O3:Er on a silicon chip with 20 dB internal net gain

Sergio Andrés Vázquez-Córdova, Edward Bernhardi, Kerstin Worhoff, Jennifer Lynn Herek, Sonia Maria García Blanco, Markus Pollnau

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Spiral-waveguide amplifiers in erbium-doped amorphous aluminum oxide are fabricated by RF reactive co-sputtering of 1-µm-thick layers onto a thermally-oxidized silicon wafer and chlorine-based reactive ion etching. The samples are overgrown by a SiO2 cladding. Spirals with several lengths ranging from 13 cm to 42 cm and four different erbium concentrations between 0.5-3.0×10^20 cm^-3 are experimentally characterized. A maximum internal net gain of 20 dB in the small-signal-gain regime is measured at the peak emission wavelength of 1532 nm for two sample configurations with waveguide lengths of 13 cm and 24 cm and erbium concentrations of 2×10^20 cm^-3 and 1×10^20 cm^-3, respectively. The obtained gain improves previous results by van den Hoven et al. in this host material by a factor of 9. Gain saturation as a result of increasing signal power is investigated. Positive net gain is measured in the saturated-gain regime up to ~100 µW of signal power, but extension to the mW regime seems feasible. The experimental results are compared to a rate-equation model that takes into account migration-accelerated energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) and a fast quenching process affecting a fraction of the erbium ions. Without these two detrimental processes, several tens of dB/cm of internal net gain per unit length would be achievable. Whereas ETU limits the gain per unit length to 8 dB/cm, the fast quenching process further reduces it to 2 dB/cm. The fast quenching process strongly deteriorates the amplifier performance of the Al2O3:Er3+ waveguide amplifiers. This effect is accentuated for concentrations higher than 2×10^20 cm^-3.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntegrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX
Place of PublicationBellingham, USA
PublisherSPIE
PagesPaper 93650M
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)978-1-62841-455-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015
EventIntegrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 9 Feb 201511 Feb 2015
Conference number: 19

Publication series

NameProceedings of the SPIE
PublisherSPIE
Volume9365

Conference

ConferenceIntegrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX
CountryUnited States
CitySan Francisco
Period9/02/1511/02/15

Fingerprint

amplifiers
chips
silicon
erbium
quenching
waveguides
energy transfer
trucks
chlorine
ions
aluminum oxides
sputtering
etching
wafers
saturation
configurations
wavelengths

Keywords

  • spiral amplifier
  • rate-equation model
  • waveguide amplifier
  • EWI-25963
  • IR-95789
  • Amorphous aluminum oxide
  • Erbium
  • optical gain
  • METIS-312572
  • IOMS-APD: Active Photonic Devices

Cite this

Vázquez-Córdova, S. A., Bernhardi, E., Worhoff, K., Herek, J. L., García Blanco, S. M., & Pollnau, M. (2015). Spiral amplifiers in a-Al2O3:Er on a silicon chip with 20 dB internal net gain. In Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX (pp. Paper 93650M). (Proceedings of the SPIE; Vol. 9365). Bellingham, USA: SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2077503
Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio Andrés ; Bernhardi, Edward ; Worhoff, Kerstin ; Herek, Jennifer Lynn ; García Blanco, Sonia Maria ; Pollnau, Markus. / Spiral amplifiers in a-Al2O3:Er on a silicon chip with 20 dB internal net gain. Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX. Bellingham, USA : SPIE, 2015. pp. Paper 93650M (Proceedings of the SPIE).
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abstract = "Spiral-waveguide amplifiers in erbium-doped amorphous aluminum oxide are fabricated by RF reactive co-sputtering of 1-µm-thick layers onto a thermally-oxidized silicon wafer and chlorine-based reactive ion etching. The samples are overgrown by a SiO2 cladding. Spirals with several lengths ranging from 13 cm to 42 cm and four different erbium concentrations between 0.5-3.0×10^20 cm^-3 are experimentally characterized. A maximum internal net gain of 20 dB in the small-signal-gain regime is measured at the peak emission wavelength of 1532 nm for two sample configurations with waveguide lengths of 13 cm and 24 cm and erbium concentrations of 2×10^20 cm^-3 and 1×10^20 cm^-3, respectively. The obtained gain improves previous results by van den Hoven et al. in this host material by a factor of 9. Gain saturation as a result of increasing signal power is investigated. Positive net gain is measured in the saturated-gain regime up to ~100 µW of signal power, but extension to the mW regime seems feasible. The experimental results are compared to a rate-equation model that takes into account migration-accelerated energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) and a fast quenching process affecting a fraction of the erbium ions. Without these two detrimental processes, several tens of dB/cm of internal net gain per unit length would be achievable. Whereas ETU limits the gain per unit length to 8 dB/cm, the fast quenching process further reduces it to 2 dB/cm. The fast quenching process strongly deteriorates the amplifier performance of the Al2O3:Er3+ waveguide amplifiers. This effect is accentuated for concentrations higher than 2×10^20 cm^-3.",
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Vázquez-Córdova, SA, Bernhardi, E, Worhoff, K, Herek, JL, García Blanco, SM & Pollnau, M 2015, Spiral amplifiers in a-Al2O3:Er on a silicon chip with 20 dB internal net gain. in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 9365, SPIE, Bellingham, USA, pp. Paper 93650M, Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX, San Francisco, United States, 9/02/15. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2077503

Spiral amplifiers in a-Al2O3:Er on a silicon chip with 20 dB internal net gain. / Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio Andrés; Bernhardi, Edward; Worhoff, Kerstin; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; García Blanco, Sonia Maria; Pollnau, Markus.

Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX. Bellingham, USA : SPIE, 2015. p. Paper 93650M (Proceedings of the SPIE; Vol. 9365).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

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AU - Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio Andrés

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AU - Herek, Jennifer Lynn

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N2 - Spiral-waveguide amplifiers in erbium-doped amorphous aluminum oxide are fabricated by RF reactive co-sputtering of 1-µm-thick layers onto a thermally-oxidized silicon wafer and chlorine-based reactive ion etching. The samples are overgrown by a SiO2 cladding. Spirals with several lengths ranging from 13 cm to 42 cm and four different erbium concentrations between 0.5-3.0×10^20 cm^-3 are experimentally characterized. A maximum internal net gain of 20 dB in the small-signal-gain regime is measured at the peak emission wavelength of 1532 nm for two sample configurations with waveguide lengths of 13 cm and 24 cm and erbium concentrations of 2×10^20 cm^-3 and 1×10^20 cm^-3, respectively. The obtained gain improves previous results by van den Hoven et al. in this host material by a factor of 9. Gain saturation as a result of increasing signal power is investigated. Positive net gain is measured in the saturated-gain regime up to ~100 µW of signal power, but extension to the mW regime seems feasible. The experimental results are compared to a rate-equation model that takes into account migration-accelerated energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) and a fast quenching process affecting a fraction of the erbium ions. Without these two detrimental processes, several tens of dB/cm of internal net gain per unit length would be achievable. Whereas ETU limits the gain per unit length to 8 dB/cm, the fast quenching process further reduces it to 2 dB/cm. The fast quenching process strongly deteriorates the amplifier performance of the Al2O3:Er3+ waveguide amplifiers. This effect is accentuated for concentrations higher than 2×10^20 cm^-3.

AB - Spiral-waveguide amplifiers in erbium-doped amorphous aluminum oxide are fabricated by RF reactive co-sputtering of 1-µm-thick layers onto a thermally-oxidized silicon wafer and chlorine-based reactive ion etching. The samples are overgrown by a SiO2 cladding. Spirals with several lengths ranging from 13 cm to 42 cm and four different erbium concentrations between 0.5-3.0×10^20 cm^-3 are experimentally characterized. A maximum internal net gain of 20 dB in the small-signal-gain regime is measured at the peak emission wavelength of 1532 nm for two sample configurations with waveguide lengths of 13 cm and 24 cm and erbium concentrations of 2×10^20 cm^-3 and 1×10^20 cm^-3, respectively. The obtained gain improves previous results by van den Hoven et al. in this host material by a factor of 9. Gain saturation as a result of increasing signal power is investigated. Positive net gain is measured in the saturated-gain regime up to ~100 µW of signal power, but extension to the mW regime seems feasible. The experimental results are compared to a rate-equation model that takes into account migration-accelerated energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) and a fast quenching process affecting a fraction of the erbium ions. Without these two detrimental processes, several tens of dB/cm of internal net gain per unit length would be achievable. Whereas ETU limits the gain per unit length to 8 dB/cm, the fast quenching process further reduces it to 2 dB/cm. The fast quenching process strongly deteriorates the amplifier performance of the Al2O3:Er3+ waveguide amplifiers. This effect is accentuated for concentrations higher than 2×10^20 cm^-3.

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BT - Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX

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Vázquez-Córdova SA, Bernhardi E, Worhoff K, Herek JL, García Blanco SM, Pollnau M. Spiral amplifiers in a-Al2O3:Er on a silicon chip with 20 dB internal net gain. In Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XIX. Bellingham, USA: SPIE. 2015. p. Paper 93650M. (Proceedings of the SPIE). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2077503