Spread of Online Chatting and Global Developments in Reading Literacy during 2000:2018

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


This chapter addresses the relationship between increased online chatting during 2000-2018 and changes in reading literacy. The findings relate to per-country changes and involve 39 countries from five continents. The data was derived from the international PISA surveys. Two groups of countries are distinguished: those with a low prevalence of online chatting in 2009 and accelerating growth during 2009-2018 and those with high chatting prevalence in 2009 but decreasing growth afterward. The first group shows substantially improved reading literacy during 2000-2009. However, this positive trend changed around in the subsequent period when online chatting clearly accelerated in these countries. In contrast, the second group shows improvement during 2009-2018, when the growth in online chatting decelerated in these countries. By 2009 the prevalence of online chatting was already high in these countries. This coincided with a small decrease in reading literacy. Additional analyses indicate that during 2000-2009 the relationship between increased online chatting and decreased reading literacy is mediated by changing percentages of students reading fiction at least once a month. During 2009-2108 the relationship is mediated by changing awareness of useful reading strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvanced Virtual Assistants
Subtitle of host publicationA Window to the Virtual Future
EditorsAli Soofastaei
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-83769-711-3
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2023


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