Stability characterization of high-sensitivity silicon-based EUV photodiodes in a detrimental environment

Lei Shi*, Stoyan Nihtianov, Lis K. Nanver, Frank Scholze

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


In extreme-ultraviolet (EUV)-based applications, such as next-generation EUV lithography, the detector surface has to be periodically exposed to aggressive gasses as a cleaning step to prevent the build-up of contaminating layers. In this paper, we report excellent EUV radiation hardness and robustness to harsh working conditions of a Si-based boron-doped ultrashallow junction photodiode (B-layer diode) fabricated by a pure boron chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology. Experimental results show unchanged responsivity of the photodiode (within the measurement uncertainty) with radiation dose up to 0.22 MJcm2. The surface cleaning tests with hydrogen radicals (H*) confirm that the electrical/optical performance of the detector is stable with only minor change of the characteristics. In addition, the detectors must be operated in vacuum without an air-cooling system, as air is not transparent for EUV photons. An on-chip sensor system, which contains B-layer diodes and bipolar-transistor-based temperature sensors, is developed for compensating the thermal drift of the photodiode output signal when the diode is heated up by the EUV radiation. Furthermore, this on-chip sensor system also demonstrates the full compatibility of this novel pure boron CVD technology with standard Si-based integrated circuit processing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6387252
Pages (from-to)1699-1707
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE sensors journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 16 Apr 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Dark current
  • extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation
  • H cleaning
  • photodiodes
  • radiation hardness
  • responsivity
  • ultrashallow junctions

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