Stabilizing Crystal Framework of an Overlithiated Li1+xMn2O4 Cathode by Heterointerfacial Epitaxial Strain for High-Performance Microbatteries

Jie Zheng, Rui Xia, Sourav Baiju, Zixiong Sun, Payam Kaghazchi, Johan E. ten Elshof, Gertjan Koster, Mark Huijben*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
23 Downloads (Pure)


To meet the increasing demands of high-energy and high-power-density lithium-ion microbatteries, overlithiated Li1+xMn2O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) is an attractive cathode candidate due to the high theoretical capacity of 296 mAh g-1 and the interconnected lithium-ion diffusion pathways. However, overlithiation triggers the irreversible cubic-tetragonal phase transition due to Jahn-Teller distortion, causing rapid capacity degradation. In contrast to conventional lithium-ion batteries, microbatteries offer the opportunity to develop specific thin-film-based modification strategies. Here, heterointerfacial lattice strain is proposed to stabilize the spinel crystal framework of an overlithiated Li1+xMn2O4 (LMO) cathode by epitaxial thin film growth on an underlying SrRuO3 (SRO) electronic conductor layer. It is demonstrated that the lattice misfit at the LMO/SRO heterointerface results in an in-plane epitaxial constraint in the full LMO film. This suppresses the lattice expansion during overlithiation that typically occurs in the in-plane direction. It is proposed by density functional theory modeling that the epitaxial constraint can accommodate the internal lattice stress originating from the cubic-tetragonal transition during overlithiation. As a result, a doubling of the capacity is achieved by reversibly intercalating a second lithium ion in a LiMn2O4 epitaxial cathode with a complete reversible phase transition. An impressive cycling stability can be obtained with reversible capacity retentions of above 90.3 and 77.4% for the 4 and 3 V range, respectively. This provides an effective strategy toward a stable overlithiated Li1+xMn2O4 epitaxial cathode for high-performance microbatteries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25391-25404
Number of pages14
JournalACS nano
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2023


  • Epitaxial stabilization
  • Jahn−Teller distortion
  • Lithium-ion microbatteries
  • Overlithiated LiMnO
  • Spinel cathode
  • Thin film
  • UT-Hybrid-D


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