Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a concept that aligns with both current and future mobility demands of users, namely intermodal, personalized, on-demand and seamless. Although the number of shared mobility, electric mobility and multimodal passenger transport users is rapidly growing, until now, the list of MaaS and electric Mobility as Service (eMaaS) providers is quite short. This could partly be explained by the lack of a common architecture that facilitates the complex integration of all actors involved in the (e)MaaS ecosystem. The goal of this publication is to give an overview of the state of the art regarding (e)MaaS’ ecosystems and architectures. Moreover, it aims to support the further development of eMaaS by proposing a definition and a novel system architecture for eMaaS. Firstly, the state of the art of the MaaS ecosystem is reviewed. Secondly, the eMaaS ecosystem that builds upon our definition of eMaaS is described and the MaaS system- and technical- architectures found in literature are reviewed. Finally, an eMaaS architecture that focuses on the integration of MaaS and electric mobility systems is presented. With the definition, ecosystem and system architecture presented in this work, the aim is to support the further development of the eMaaS concept.
- electric mobility
- electric mobility systems
- electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS)
- system architecture
Reyes Garcia, J. R., Lenz, G., Haveman, S. P., & Bonnema, G. M. (2019). State of the Art of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Ecosystems and Architectures: An Overview of, and a Definition, Ecosystem and System Architecture for Electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS). World Electric Vehicle Journal, 11(1), . https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010007