Static and dynamic 3D facial expression recognition: A comprehensive survey

G. Sandbach, S. Zafeiriou, Maja Pantic, Lijun Yin

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    269 Citations (Scopus)


    Automatic facial expression recognition constitutes an active research field due to the latest advances in computing technology that make the user's experience a clear priority. The majority of work conducted in this area involves 2D imagery, despite the problems this presents due to inherent pose and illumination variations. In order to deal with these problems, 3D and 4D (dynamic 3D) recordings are increasingly used in expression analysis research. In this paper we survey the recent advances in 3D and 4D facial expression recognition. We discuss developments in 3D facial data acquisition and tracking, and present currently available 3D/4D face databases suitable for 3D/4D facial expressions analysis as well as the existing facial expression recognition systems that exploit either 3D or 4D data in detail. Finally, challenges that have to be addressed if 3D facial expression recognition systems are to become a part of future applications are extensively discussed.
    Original languageUndefined
    Pages (from-to)683-697
    Number of pages15
    JournalImage and vision computing
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012


    • EWI-22934
    • 3D facial surface
    • IR-84215
    • Facial behaviour analysis
    • Facial expression recognition
    • METIS-296238
    • 3D facial surface sequences (4D faces)

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