Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has been observed between active infeed converters as used in photo-voltaic systems and static meters. Reducing the interference levels eliminated inaccurate reading in static meters. Several field investigations failed to identify a clear root cause of inaccurate readings of static energy meters. Experiments were performed in a controlled lab environment. Three-phase meters showed large deviations, even when supplied with an ideal sinusoidal voltage from a four-quadrant power amplifier. Large variations could be observed when non-linear, fast switching, loads were connected. A deviation of +276 % was measured with one static energy meter, +265% with a second and -46% with a third static energy meter. After dismantling it was revealed that the meters with the positive deviation used a Rogowski coil current sensor. The meter with a Hall effect-based current sensor gave the -46% deviation. The fourth meter, with a current transformer, resulted in -10% in one experiment and +8% in another experiment, where the deviations are with respect to a conventional electromechanical meter. Mea¬surements were repeated with more meters and supplied from standard, low internal impedance, mains supply in the laboratory. Deviations of +475%, +566%, +569%, +581%, +582% and -31% and -32% were registered, with again the positive deviation for Rogowski coil current sensors and negative deviations for the Hall sensors.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||IEEE electromagnetic compatibility magazine|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Mar 2017|
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