Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference

Frank Bernardus Johannes Leferink, Cornelis H.A. Keyer, Anton Melentjev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
295 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has been observed between active infeed converters as used in photo-voltaic systems and static meters. Reducing the interference levels eliminated inaccurate reading in static meters. Several field investigations failed to identify a clear root cause of inaccurate readings of static energy meters. Experiments were performed in a controlled lab environment. Three-phase meters showed large deviations, even when supplied with an ideal sinusoidal voltage from a four-quadrant power amplifier. Large variations could be observed when non-linear, fast switching, loads were connected. A deviation of +276 % was measured with one static energy meter, +265% with a second and -46% with a third static energy meter. After dismantling it was revealed that the meters with the positive deviation used a Rogowski coil current sensor. The meter with a Hall effect-based current sensor gave the -46% deviation. The fourth meter, with a current transformer, resulted in -10% in one experiment and +8% in another experiment, where the deviations are with respect to a conventional electromechanical meter. Mea¬surements were repeated with more meters and supplied from standard, low internal impedance, mains supply in the laboratory. Deviations of +475%, +566%, +569%, +581%, +582% and -31% and -32% were registered, with again the positive deviation for Rogowski coil current sensors and negative deviations for the Hall sensors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-55
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE electromagnetic compatibility magazine
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

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electromagnetic interference
Signal interference
Atmospherics
deviation
energy
Sensors
sensors
Phase meters
coils
Electric instrument transformers
Experiments
Hall effect
causes
quadrants
Power amplifiers
power amplifiers
transformers
converters

Keywords

  • IR-103993
  • EWI-27661

Cite this

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title = "Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference",
abstract = "Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has been observed between active infeed converters as used in photo-voltaic systems and static meters. Reducing the interference levels eliminated inaccurate reading in static meters. Several field investigations failed to identify a clear root cause of inaccurate readings of static energy meters. Experiments were performed in a controlled lab environment. Three-phase meters showed large deviations, even when supplied with an ideal sinusoidal voltage from a four-quadrant power amplifier. Large variations could be observed when non-linear, fast switching, loads were connected. A deviation of +276 {\%} was measured with one static energy meter, +265{\%} with a second and -46{\%} with a third static energy meter. After dismantling it was revealed that the meters with the positive deviation used a Rogowski coil current sensor. The meter with a Hall effect-based current sensor gave the -46{\%} deviation. The fourth meter, with a current transformer, resulted in -10{\%} in one experiment and +8{\%} in another experiment, where the deviations are with respect to a conventional electromechanical meter. Mea¬surements were repeated with more meters and supplied from standard, low internal impedance, mains supply in the laboratory. Deviations of +475{\%}, +566{\%}, +569{\%}, +581{\%}, +582{\%} and -31{\%} and -32{\%} were registered, with again the positive deviation for Rogowski coil current sensors and negative deviations for the Hall sensors.",
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author = "Leferink, {Frank Bernardus Johannes} and Keyer, {Cornelis H.A.} and Anton Melentjev",
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Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference. / Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Melentjev, Anton.

In: IEEE electromagnetic compatibility magazine, Vol. 5, No. 4, 01.03.2017, p. 49-55.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference

AU - Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

AU - Keyer, Cornelis H.A.

AU - Melentjev, Anton

PY - 2017/3/1

Y1 - 2017/3/1

N2 - Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has been observed between active infeed converters as used in photo-voltaic systems and static meters. Reducing the interference levels eliminated inaccurate reading in static meters. Several field investigations failed to identify a clear root cause of inaccurate readings of static energy meters. Experiments were performed in a controlled lab environment. Three-phase meters showed large deviations, even when supplied with an ideal sinusoidal voltage from a four-quadrant power amplifier. Large variations could be observed when non-linear, fast switching, loads were connected. A deviation of +276 % was measured with one static energy meter, +265% with a second and -46% with a third static energy meter. After dismantling it was revealed that the meters with the positive deviation used a Rogowski coil current sensor. The meter with a Hall effect-based current sensor gave the -46% deviation. The fourth meter, with a current transformer, resulted in -10% in one experiment and +8% in another experiment, where the deviations are with respect to a conventional electromechanical meter. Mea¬surements were repeated with more meters and supplied from standard, low internal impedance, mains supply in the laboratory. Deviations of +475%, +566%, +569%, +581%, +582% and -31% and -32% were registered, with again the positive deviation for Rogowski coil current sensors and negative deviations for the Hall sensors.

AB - Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has been observed between active infeed converters as used in photo-voltaic systems and static meters. Reducing the interference levels eliminated inaccurate reading in static meters. Several field investigations failed to identify a clear root cause of inaccurate readings of static energy meters. Experiments were performed in a controlled lab environment. Three-phase meters showed large deviations, even when supplied with an ideal sinusoidal voltage from a four-quadrant power amplifier. Large variations could be observed when non-linear, fast switching, loads were connected. A deviation of +276 % was measured with one static energy meter, +265% with a second and -46% with a third static energy meter. After dismantling it was revealed that the meters with the positive deviation used a Rogowski coil current sensor. The meter with a Hall effect-based current sensor gave the -46% deviation. The fourth meter, with a current transformer, resulted in -10% in one experiment and +8% in another experiment, where the deviations are with respect to a conventional electromechanical meter. Mea¬surements were repeated with more meters and supplied from standard, low internal impedance, mains supply in the laboratory. Deviations of +475%, +566%, +569%, +581%, +582% and -31% and -32% were registered, with again the positive deviation for Rogowski coil current sensors and negative deviations for the Hall sensors.

KW - IR-103993

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JF - IEEE electromagnetic compatibility magazine

SN - 2162-2264

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ER -