3D stereophotogrammetry for the assessment of tracheostoma anatomy

Richard Dirven, Frans J.M. Hilgers, Joanneke M. Plooij, Thomas J.J. Maal, Stefaan J. Bergé, Gijsbertus J. Verkerke, Henri A.M. Marres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Differences in tracheostoma anatomy between laryngectomized patients are held partly responsible for the differences in duration of attachment of standard peristomal adhesives for heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and automatic stoma valves (ASVs). Accurate information on a set of basic stoma anatomy parameters should be helpful to overcome fixation problems in individual patients and in the general laryngectomy population.

Patients and methods: This was an exploratory observational pilot study in 20 laryngectomized patients. Three-dimensional (3D) images of the tracheostoma and surrounding tissue were captured with a 3D digital camera, which applies the advanced principles of stereophotogrammetry. Data were analysed by using a 3D editing program. The following tracheostoma parameters were measured for each patient: horizontal and vertical diameters, circumference, depth and surface.

Results: Inter-observer outcomes show a mean stoma circumference of 58.2 mm (SD 11.6 mm). The mean surface was calculated at 186.6 mm2 (SD 61 mm2). The mean size of the stoma's horizontal diameter and vertical diameter was 14.7 mm (SD 2.9 mm) and 19.0 mm (SD 3.4 mm), respectively. The mean depth of the stoma in relation to the right sternal head of the m. sternocleidomastoideus was 15.5 mm (SD 5.4 mm) and in relation to the left it was 16 mm (SD 5.6 mm).

Conclusion: 3D stereophotogrammetry is a useful tool for quantitative assessment of tracheostoma anatomy, and thus in future could possibly play a role in solving current problems with peristomal and intratracheal fixation of stoma appliances.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1248-1254
Number of pages7
JournalActa oto-laryngologica
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Automatic stoma valve
  • Customized epithesis
  • Heat and moisture exchanger
  • Peristomal adhesives
  • Three-dimensional imaging
  • Tracheostoma imaging


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