Stiction in surface micromachining

Niels Roelof Tas, A.H. Sonnenberg, Henricus V. Jansen, R. Legtenberg, Rob Legtenberg, Michael Curt Elwenspoek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 375 Citations

Abstract

Due to the smoothness of the surfaces in surface micromachining, large adhesion forces between fabricated structures and the substrate are encountered. Four major adhesion mechanisms have been analysed: capillary forces, hydrogen bridging, electrostatic forces and van der Waals forces. Once contact is made adhesion forces can be stronger than the restoring elastic forces and even short, thick beams will continue to stick to the substrate. Contact, resulting from drying liquid after release etching, has been successfully reduced. In order to make a fail-safe device stiction during its operational life-time should be anticipated. Electrostatic forces and acceleration forces caused by shocks encountered by the device can be large enough to bring structures into contact with the substrate. In order to avoid in-use stiction adhesion forces should therefore be minimized. This is possible by coating the device with weakly adhesive materials, by using bumps and side-wall spacers and by increasing the surface roughness at the interface. Capillary condensation should also be taken into account as this can lead to large increases in the contact area of roughened surfaces.
LanguageUndefined
Pages385-397
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of micromechanics and microengineering
Volume6
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1996

Keywords

  • METIS-111489
  • EWI-13544
  • IR-14204

Cite this

Tas, N. R., Sonnenberg, A. H., Jansen, H. V., Legtenberg, R., Legtenberg, R., & Elwenspoek, M. C. (1996). Stiction in surface micromachining. Journal of micromechanics and microengineering, 6(4), 385-397. DOI: 10.1088/0960-1317/6/4/005
Tas, Niels Roelof ; Sonnenberg, A.H. ; Jansen, Henricus V. ; Legtenberg, R. ; Legtenberg, Rob ; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt. / Stiction in surface micromachining. In: Journal of micromechanics and microengineering. 1996 ; Vol. 6, No. 4. pp. 385-397
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Tas, NR, Sonnenberg, AH, Jansen, HV, Legtenberg, R, Legtenberg, R & Elwenspoek, MC 1996, 'Stiction in surface micromachining' Journal of micromechanics and microengineering, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 385-397. DOI: 10.1088/0960-1317/6/4/005

Stiction in surface micromachining. / Tas, Niels Roelof; Sonnenberg, A.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Legtenberg, R.; Legtenberg, Rob; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt.

In: Journal of micromechanics and microengineering, Vol. 6, No. 4, 12.1996, p. 385-397.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stiction in surface micromachining

AU - Tas,Niels Roelof

AU - Sonnenberg,A.H.

AU - Jansen,Henricus V.

AU - Legtenberg,R.

AU - Legtenberg,Rob

AU - Elwenspoek,Michael Curt

PY - 1996/12

Y1 - 1996/12

N2 - Due to the smoothness of the surfaces in surface micromachining, large adhesion forces between fabricated structures and the substrate are encountered. Four major adhesion mechanisms have been analysed: capillary forces, hydrogen bridging, electrostatic forces and van der Waals forces. Once contact is made adhesion forces can be stronger than the restoring elastic forces and even short, thick beams will continue to stick to the substrate. Contact, resulting from drying liquid after release etching, has been successfully reduced. In order to make a fail-safe device stiction during its operational life-time should be anticipated. Electrostatic forces and acceleration forces caused by shocks encountered by the device can be large enough to bring structures into contact with the substrate. In order to avoid in-use stiction adhesion forces should therefore be minimized. This is possible by coating the device with weakly adhesive materials, by using bumps and side-wall spacers and by increasing the surface roughness at the interface. Capillary condensation should also be taken into account as this can lead to large increases in the contact area of roughened surfaces.

AB - Due to the smoothness of the surfaces in surface micromachining, large adhesion forces between fabricated structures and the substrate are encountered. Four major adhesion mechanisms have been analysed: capillary forces, hydrogen bridging, electrostatic forces and van der Waals forces. Once contact is made adhesion forces can be stronger than the restoring elastic forces and even short, thick beams will continue to stick to the substrate. Contact, resulting from drying liquid after release etching, has been successfully reduced. In order to make a fail-safe device stiction during its operational life-time should be anticipated. Electrostatic forces and acceleration forces caused by shocks encountered by the device can be large enough to bring structures into contact with the substrate. In order to avoid in-use stiction adhesion forces should therefore be minimized. This is possible by coating the device with weakly adhesive materials, by using bumps and side-wall spacers and by increasing the surface roughness at the interface. Capillary condensation should also be taken into account as this can lead to large increases in the contact area of roughened surfaces.

KW - METIS-111489

KW - EWI-13544

KW - IR-14204

U2 - 10.1088/0960-1317/6/4/005

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M3 - Article

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JO - Journal of micromechanics and microengineering

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Tas NR, Sonnenberg AH, Jansen HV, Legtenberg R, Legtenberg R, Elwenspoek MC. Stiction in surface micromachining. Journal of micromechanics and microengineering. 1996 Dec;6(4):385-397. Available from, DOI: 10.1088/0960-1317/6/4/005