Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene

An Gao, P.J. Rizo, E. Zoethout, L. Scaccabarozzi, Christopher James Lee, V. Banine, Frederik Bijkerk

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

Abstract

Defects in graphene greatly affect its properties1-3. Radiation induced-defects may reduce the long-term survivability of graphene-based nano-devices. Here, we expose few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5nm) radiation and show there is a power-dependent increase in defect density. We also show that exposure to EUV radiation in an H2 background increases graphene's dosage sensitivity. This may be due to reactions caused by the EUV induced hydrogen plasma. The nature of the defects was studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which showed that the sp3 bonded carbon and oxide fractions increase with exposure. The experimental results are important for understanding the defect-creating mechanisms upon photon interaction as well as designing graphene-based components for EUV lithography systems. Graphene samples grown on 25x25mm2 Ni/Si substrate by CVD were obtained from Graphene Laboratories, Inc. Each sample had 1 to 7 layers, with a spatial average of 4. The samples were exposed to EUV, and for comparison purposes, hydrogen radicals, under conditions summarized in table 1. Raman spectroscopy and XPS were used to study the defects in graphene. Fig. 1 shows the Raman spectra of the five samples. The spectrum for the sample exposed to EUV in a hydrogen background (SEUV+H2) has the highest D peak intensity. The spectra for the samples exposed to atomic hydrogen (SH) and EUV irradiation (SEUV) show slightly lower D peak intensities. The pristine sample (Sref), and the one exposed to molecular hydrogen (SH2) have the lowest D peak intensities. An increased D peak intensity indicates increased defect density.
Original languageUndefined
Pages-
Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2012

Keywords

  • METIS-299663

Cite this

Gao, A., Rizo, P. J., Zoethout, E., Scaccabarozzi, L., Lee, C. J., Banine, V., & Bijkerk, F. (2012). Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene. -.
Gao, An ; Rizo, P.J. ; Zoethout, E. ; Scaccabarozzi, L. ; Lee, Christopher James ; Banine, V. ; Bijkerk, Frederik. / Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene.
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Gao, A, Rizo, PJ, Zoethout, E, Scaccabarozzi, L, Lee, CJ, Banine, V & Bijkerk, F 2012, 'Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene' pp. -.

Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene. / Gao, An; Rizo, P.J.; Zoethout, E.; Scaccabarozzi, L.; Lee, Christopher James; Banine, V.; Bijkerk, Frederik.

2012. -.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

TY - CONF

T1 - Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene

AU - Gao, An

AU - Rizo, P.J.

AU - Zoethout, E.

AU - Scaccabarozzi, L.

AU - Lee, Christopher James

AU - Banine, V.

AU - Bijkerk, Frederik

PY - 2012/4/23

Y1 - 2012/4/23

N2 - Defects in graphene greatly affect its properties1-3. Radiation induced-defects may reduce the long-term survivability of graphene-based nano-devices. Here, we expose few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5nm) radiation and show there is a power-dependent increase in defect density. We also show that exposure to EUV radiation in an H2 background increases graphene's dosage sensitivity. This may be due to reactions caused by the EUV induced hydrogen plasma. The nature of the defects was studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which showed that the sp3 bonded carbon and oxide fractions increase with exposure. The experimental results are important for understanding the defect-creating mechanisms upon photon interaction as well as designing graphene-based components for EUV lithography systems. Graphene samples grown on 25x25mm2 Ni/Si substrate by CVD were obtained from Graphene Laboratories, Inc. Each sample had 1 to 7 layers, with a spatial average of 4. The samples were exposed to EUV, and for comparison purposes, hydrogen radicals, under conditions summarized in table 1. Raman spectroscopy and XPS were used to study the defects in graphene. Fig. 1 shows the Raman spectra of the five samples. The spectrum for the sample exposed to EUV in a hydrogen background (SEUV+H2) has the highest D peak intensity. The spectra for the samples exposed to atomic hydrogen (SH) and EUV irradiation (SEUV) show slightly lower D peak intensities. The pristine sample (Sref), and the one exposed to molecular hydrogen (SH2) have the lowest D peak intensities. An increased D peak intensity indicates increased defect density.

AB - Defects in graphene greatly affect its properties1-3. Radiation induced-defects may reduce the long-term survivability of graphene-based nano-devices. Here, we expose few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5nm) radiation and show there is a power-dependent increase in defect density. We also show that exposure to EUV radiation in an H2 background increases graphene's dosage sensitivity. This may be due to reactions caused by the EUV induced hydrogen plasma. The nature of the defects was studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which showed that the sp3 bonded carbon and oxide fractions increase with exposure. The experimental results are important for understanding the defect-creating mechanisms upon photon interaction as well as designing graphene-based components for EUV lithography systems. Graphene samples grown on 25x25mm2 Ni/Si substrate by CVD were obtained from Graphene Laboratories, Inc. Each sample had 1 to 7 layers, with a spatial average of 4. The samples were exposed to EUV, and for comparison purposes, hydrogen radicals, under conditions summarized in table 1. Raman spectroscopy and XPS were used to study the defects in graphene. Fig. 1 shows the Raman spectra of the five samples. The spectrum for the sample exposed to EUV in a hydrogen background (SEUV+H2) has the highest D peak intensity. The spectra for the samples exposed to atomic hydrogen (SH) and EUV irradiation (SEUV) show slightly lower D peak intensities. The pristine sample (Sref), and the one exposed to molecular hydrogen (SH2) have the lowest D peak intensities. An increased D peak intensity indicates increased defect density.

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M3 - Poster

SP - -

ER -

Gao A, Rizo PJ, Zoethout E, Scaccabarozzi L, Lee CJ, Banine V et al. Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene. 2012.