Studying Pulsed Laser Deposition conditions for Ni/C-based multi-layers

Tjeerd R.J. Bollmann (Corresponding Author)

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Nickel carbon based multi-layers are a viable route towards future hard X-ray and soft γ-ray focusing telescopes. Here, we study the Pulsed Laser Deposition growth conditions of such bilayers by Reflective High Energy Electron Diffraction, X-ray Reflectivity and Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis, with emphasis on optimization of process pressure and substrate temperature during growth. The thin multi-layers are grown on a treated SiO substrate resulting in Ni and C layers with surface roughnesses (RMS) of ≤0.2 nm. Small droplets resulting during melting of the targets surface increase the roughness, however, and cannot be avoided. The sequential process at temperatures beyond 300 °C results into intermixing between the two layers, being destructive for the reflectivity of the multi-layer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)941-949
Number of pages9
JournalApplied surface science
Early online date20 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018


  • Carbon
  • Multilayers
  • Nickel
  • PLD
  • n/a OA procedure


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