Sub-500 °C solid-phase epitaxy of ultra-abrupt p+-silicon elevated contacts and diodes

Yann Civale*, Lis K. Nanver, Peter Hadley, Egbert J.G. Goudena, Hugo Schellevis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


A well-controlled low-temperature process, demonstrated from 350 °C to 500 °C, has been developed for epitaxially growing elevated contacts and near-ideal diode junctions of Al-doped Si in contact windows to the Si substrate. A physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) amorphous silicon layer is converted to monocrystalline silicon selectively in the contact windows by using a PVD aluminum layer as a transport medium. This is a solid-phase-epitaxy (SPE) process by which the grown Si is Al-doped to at least 1018 cm-3. Contact resistivity below 10-7 Ω · cm 2 is achieved to both p- and p+ bulk-silicon regions. The elevated contacts have also been employed to fabricate p+-n diodes and p+-n-p bipolar transistors, the electrical characterization of which indicates a practically defect-free epitaxy at the interface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)341-343
Number of pages3
JournalIEEE electron device letters
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Al-doping
  • Elevated contacts
  • Low-ohmic contacts
  • Low-temperature processing
  • p-n-p bipolar junction transistors
  • Solid-phase epitaxy
  • Ultra-shallow junctions


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