A major obstacle for the implementation of redox-based memristive memory or logic technology is the large cycle-to-cycle and device-to-device variability. Here, we use spectromicroscopic photoemission threshold analysis and operando XAS analysis to experimentally investigate the microscopic origin of the variability. We find that some devices exhibit variations in the shape of the conductive filament or in the oxygen vacancy distribution at and around the filament. In other cases, even the location of the active filament changes from one cycle to the next. We propose that both effects originate from the coexistence of multiple (sub)filaments and that the active, current-carrying filament may change from cycle to cycle. These findings account for the observed variability in device performance and represent the scientific basis, rather than prior purely empirical engineering approaches, for developing stable memristive devices.
- memristive devices
- resistive switching