Background: The subjective global assessment of nutritional status (SGA) is used to assess the nutritional status of chronic dialysis patients, but longitudinal data in relation to mortality risk are lacking. - Objective: Our objective was to study the long-term and time-dependent associations of the SGA with mortality risk in chronic dialysis patients. - Design: In a prospective, longitudinal, observational, multicenter study of incident dialysis patients, the 7-point SGA [7 = normal nutritional status; 1 = severe protein-energy wasting (PEW)] was assessed 3 and 6 mo after the start of dialysis and subsequently every 6 mo during 7 y of follow-up. With Cox regression analysis, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of the baseline and time-dependent SGA measurements, adjusted for age, sex, treatment modality, primary kidney diseases, and comorbidity. - Results: In total, 1601 patients were included [mean (±SD) age: 59 ± 15 y; 61% men; 23% with moderate PEW (SGA4–5), and 5% with severe PEW (SGA1–3)]. There was a dose-dependent trend of the 7-point SGA with mortality. Compared with a normal nutritional status at baseline, SGA4–5 (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.3, 1.9) and SGA1–3 (HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 2.8) were associated with an increase in 7-y mortality. Time-dependently, these associations were stronger: SGA4–5 (HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) and SGA1–3 (HR: 5.0; 95% CI: 3.8, 6.5). - Conclusions: In dialysis patients, PEW at baseline assessed with SGA was associated with a 2-fold increased mortality risk in 7 y of follow-up. Time-dependently, this association was even stronger, which indicated that PEW was associated with a remarkably high risk of short-term mortality. These data imply that the 7-point SGA may validly distinguish different degrees of PEW associated with increasing risks of mortality.