Suitability of Bundle Approximation in AC Loss Analysis of NbTi Wires: Simulations and Experiment

M. Lyly, H.J.G. Krooshoop, R. Lübkemann, S. Wessel, A. Stenvall, M. Dhalle, R. Mikkonen

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Multifilamentary NbTi wires for ac applications are manufactured by embedding filament bundles into a metal matrix. In this stage of the manufacturing process, it is possible to affect the layout of the cross section and to choose whether to use few large or many small bundles in order to achieve a certain amount of filaments. All in all, up to 100 000 filaments are attainable for wire having the diameter of 1 mm. In this paper, ac loss measurements in external magnetic field on differently stacked NbTi samples are described. The measurements were performed in a LHe-cooled cryostat. The amplitude of the external field was varied between 250 mT and 3 T at frequencies of 0.02 and 0.12 Hz. We discuss possibilities to simulate the losses with finite element method. In particular, we concentrate on the filament bundle approximation and the possibilities to exploit it in the research and development process of new NbTi wires. In this approach, the filament bundles are considered as a homogenous mixture of matrix and superconducting filaments. According to the results, the bundle approximation greatly overestimates the losses. Furthermore, it should not be used for comparing, e.g., two wire structures where one has bundles of different size than the other. However, when considering how to situate the bundles on the cross section to achieve minimal ac loss, the bundle approximation can be a useful tool
Original languageEnglish
Article number8200905
JournalIEEE transactions on applied superconductivity
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event2014 Applied Superconductivity Conference, ASC 2014 - Charlotte Convention Center, Charlotte, United States
Duration: 10 Aug 201415 Aug 2014


  • AC loss
  • Finite-element method (FEM)
  • Measurements
  • NbTi
  • Numerical modeling
  • Multifilamentary


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