18F-FDG PET/CT optimizes treatment in staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and is associated with reduced mortality

Marvin A.H. Berrevoets*, Ilse J.E. Kouijzer, Erik H.J.G. Aarntzen, Marcel J.R. Janssen, Lioe Fee De Geus-Oei, Heiman F.L. Wertheim, Bart Jan Kullberg, Jaap Ten Oever, Wim J.G. Oyen, Chantal P. Bleeker-Rovers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Metastatic infection is an important complication of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Early diagnosis of metastatic infection is crucial, because specific treatment is required. However, metastatic infection can be asymptomatic and difficult to detect. In this study, we investigated the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with SAB for detection of metastatic infection and its consequences for treatment and outcome. Methods: All patients with SAB at Radboud University Medical Center were included between January 2013 and April 2016. Clinical data and results of 18F-FDG PET/CT and other imaging techniques, including echocardiography, were collected. Primary outcomes were newly diagnosed metastatic infection by 18F-FDG PET/CT, subsequent treatment modifications, and patient outcome. Results: A total of 184 patients were included, and 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 105 patients, of whom 99 had a high-risk bacteremia. 18FFDG PET/CT detected metastatic infectious foci in 73.7% of these high-risk patients. In 71.2% of patients with metastatic infection, no signs and symptoms suggesting metastatic complications were present before 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed. 18F-FDG PET/CT led to a total of 104 treatment modifications in 74 patients. Three-month mortality was higher in high-risk bacteremia patients without 18FFDG PET/CT performed than in those in whom 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed (32.7%vs. 12.4%, P = 0.003). Inmultivariate analysis, 18F-FDG PET/CT was the only factor independently associated with reduced mortality (P = 0.005; odds ratio, 0.204; 95% confidence interval, 0.066-0.624). A higher comorbidity score was independently associated with increased mortality (P = 0.003; odds ratio, 1.254; 95% confidence interval, 1.078-1.457). Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/ CT is a valuable technique for early detection of metastatic infectious foci, often leading to treatment modification. Performing 18F-FDG PET/CT is associated with significantly reduced 3-mo mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1504-1510
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of nuclear medicine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2017


  • Metastatic infection
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • n/a OA procedure


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