Supply and demand of ecosystem services of urban green spaces in deprived areas: Perceptions from Kumasi, Ghana

Rexford Osei Owusu, Javier Martinez, Nina Schwarz*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Urban green spaces (UGS) contribute to human health and wellbeing. However, few studies have focused on cities in the Global South, mainly examining them on a citywide scale without considering deprived areas where residents lack basic facilities and sufficient income. Consequently, there is limited understanding of the relationship between the availability of UGS and associated ecosystem services (ES), and what is actually demanded for by residents in such deprived areas. Therefore, this study aims to assess (i) the perceived supply and (ii) the perceived demand for ES of UGS in selected deprived urban areas; and (iii) to determine the potential gap(s) between these perceived supply and demand aspects. A mixed-method approach was adopted for the study, incorporating GIS methods, household surveys, and key informant interviews. As case studies, the study was conducted in two deprived areas in Kumasi, Ghana – Dakodwom and Ayigya Zongo. The findings reveal that land scarcity and encroachment have led to a limited supply of UGS in these areas. Nevertheless, residents appreciate the few available UGS and ES, demonstrating adaptation to their limited resources. They particularly highlighted the cultural ES provided by these UGS. The high demand for these services, surpassing their supply, shows significant gaps, emphasising the need for comprehensive urban planning and management decisions. Such decisions should involve all stakeholders and be underpinned by effective legislative support.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103742
Pages (from-to)1-15
JournalEnvironmental Science and Policy
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Ecosystem services
  • Inequality
  • Informal settlements
  • Kumasi
  • Urban green spaces
  • Urbanisation
  • UT-Hybrid-D


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