Supply chain optimization for electricity-based jet fuel: The case study Germany

Timo Wassermann*, Henry Muehlenbrock, Philipp Kenkel, Edwin Zondervan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
266 Downloads (Pure)


Electricity-based jet fuel from renewables, also labeled sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), is expected to play a key role in the defossilization of aviation. The realization of first plants for the production of such power-to-liquid (PtL) fuels is imminent. This raises the challenge of an effective PtL supply chain design, which is addressed in this work. A novel optimization approach is introduced that enables an integrated selection of sites and technologies. Economically favorable supply chain designs are presented for the case study of Germany, with production primarily located in the wind power rich greater North Sea coast area. The Heide Refinery and Emsland Lingen Refinery sites are particularly suited for fuel synthesis, while cement and iron & steel plants are preferred as CO2 point sources. This study shows that at an electricity price of 0.05 € kWh−1, the costs for SAF production and supply range from 2052 to 2258 € t−1. The minimum is obtained at a production volume equivalent to 4 % of the national jet fuel demand. To achieve the envisioned 2030 target of 2 % PtL SAF, an investment volume of 1.6 B€ is expected.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117683
JournalApplied energy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Carbon capture and utilization
  • Jet fuel
  • Kerosene
  • Power-to-liquid
  • Supply chain optimization
  • Sustainable aviation fuel
  • 22/4 OA procedure


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