Supporting Drivers of Partially Automated Cars Through an Adaptive Digital In-Car Tutor

Anika Boelhouwer*, Arie Paul van den Beukel, Mascha C. van der Voort, Willem B. Verwey, Marieke H. Martens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
128 Downloads (Pure)


Drivers struggle to understand how, and when, to safely use their cars’ complex automated functions. Training is necessary but costly and time consuming. A Digital In-Car Tutor (DIT) is proposed to support drivers in learning about, and trying out, their car automation during regular drives. During this driving simulator study, we investigated the effects of a DIT prototype on appropriate automation use and take-over quality. The study had three sessions, each containing multiple driving scenarios. Participants needed to use the automation when they thought that it was safe, and turn it off if it was not. The control group read an information brochure before driving, while the experiment group received the DIT during the first driving session. DIT users showed more correct automation use and a better take-over quality during the first driving session. The DIT especially reduced inappropriate reliance behaviour throughout all sessions. Users of the DIT did show some under-trust during the last driving session. Overall, the concept of a DIT shows potential as a low-cost and time-saving solution for safe guided learning in partially automated cars.
Original languageEnglish
Article number185
JournalInformation (Switzerland)
Issue number4
Early online date30 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • Adaptive HMI
  • Automated driving
  • Automotive user interfaces
  • Driver behaviour


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