The surface- and grain boundary composition of Y, Ce and Ti doped zirconia were studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Auger Electron Spectroscopy/Scanning Auger Microscopy. The grain boundaries and free surfaces showed the same enrichment levels. After heat treatment ge 1000 DaggerC all yttria doped samples showed yttrium enrichment. In the ZrO2-Y2O3 system the yttrium enrichment did not depend on the bulk concentration and amounted 30–34 mol% YO1.5 in all cases. As a consequence the segregation factor increases with decreasing solute concentration in the bulk. The thickness of the segregation layer was about 2–4 nm. In the ternary Y doped systems yttrium is the main segregant. In ceria-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Ce-TZP) systems significant segregation of cerium starts at T≥1300‡C and is mainly attributed to Ce3+. In Y,Ti-TZP systems also strong segregation of Ti4+ occurs. The absolute value of the increase of the surface concentration in fine grained material is smaller than in coarse grained material. This is mainly due to depletion of the bulk.
Theunissen, G. S. A. M., Winnubst, A. J. A., & Burggraaf, A. J. (1992). Surface and grain boundary analysis of doped zirconia ceramics by AES and XPS. Journal of materials science, 27(18), 5057-5066. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01105274