The aim of this study is to improve the interaction of endothelial cells with polymers used in vascular prostheses. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; Teflon) films were treated by means of nitrogen and oxygen plasmas. Depending on the plasma exposure time, modified PTFE surfaces showed water-contact angles of 15¿58° versus 96° for unmodified PTFE. Electron spectroscopy in chemical analysis (ESCA) measurements revealed incorporation of both nitrogenand oxygen-containing groups into the PTFE surfaces, dependent on the plasma composition and exposure time. In-vitro biological evaluation of unmodified and modified PTFE surfaces showed that human endothelial cells, seeded from 20% human serum-containing culture medium, adhered well on to modified PTFE surfaces, but not on to unmodified films. Adhesion of endothelial cells on to expanded PTFE graft material (Gore-Tex) was also stimulated by plasma treatment of this substrate. On plasma-treated expanded PTFE, the adhering endothelial cells formed a monolayer, which covered the textured surface. The latter observation is important in view of the hemocompatibility of vascular grafts seeded with endothelial cells before implantation.