Survival prediction for stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer using deep learning

Sunyi Zheng*, Jiapan Guo, Johannes A. Langendijk, Stefan Both, Raymond N.J. Veldhuis, Matthijs Oudkerk, Peter M.A. van Ooijen, Robin Wijsman, Nanna M. Sijtsema

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a prediction model for 2-year overall survival (OS) in stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received definitive radiotherapy by considering clinical variables and image features from pre-treatment CT-scans. Materials and methods: NSCLC patients who received stereotactic radiotherapy were prospectively collected at the UMCG and split into a training and a hold out test set including 189 and 81 patients, respectively. External validation was performed on 228 NSCLC patients who were treated with radiation or concurrent chemoradiation at the Maastro clinic (Lung1 dataset). A hybrid model that integrated both image and clinical features was implemented using deep learning. Image features were learned from cubic patches containing lung tumours extracted from pre-treatment CT scans. Relevant clinical variables were selected by univariable and multivariable analyses. Results: Multivariable analysis showed that age and clinical stage were significant prognostic clinical factors for 2-year OS. Using these two clinical variables in combination with image features from pre-treatment CT scans, the hybrid model achieved a median AUC of 0.76 [95 % CI: 0.65–0.86] and 0.64 [95 % CI: 0.58–0.70] on the complete UMCG and Maastro test sets, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed significant separation between low and high mortality risk groups on these two test sets (log-rank test: p-value < 0.001, p-value = 0.012, respectively) Conclusion: We demonstrated that a hybrid model could achieve reasonable performance by utilizing both clinical and image features for 2-year OS prediction. Such a model has the potential to identify patients with high mortality risk and guide clinical decision making.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109483
Number of pages6
JournalRadiotherapy and oncology
Early online date20 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Deep learning
  • Logistic regression
  • Lung cancer
  • Overall survival
  • Radiotherapy


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