Swirl–nozzle interaction experiment: quasi-steady model-based analysis

Lionel Hirschberg*, Friedrich Bake, Karsten Knobloch, Angelo Rudolphi, Sebastian Kruck, Oliver Klose, Steven J. Hulshoff

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Measurements of sound due to swirl–nozzle interaction are presented. In the experiment a swirl structure was generated by means of unsteady tangential injection into a steady swirl-free flow upstream from a choked convergent–divergent nozzle. Ingestion of swirl by the choked nozzle caused a mass-flow rate change, which resulted in a downstream-measured acoustic response. The downstream acoustic pressure was found to remain negative as long as the swirl is maintained and reflections from the open downstream pipe termination do not interfere. The amplitude of this initial acoustic response was found to be proportional to the square of the tangential mass-flow rate used to generate swirl. When the tangential injection valve was closed, the mass-flow rate through the nozzle increased, resulting in an increase of the downstream acoustic pressure. This increase in signal was compared to the prediction of an empirical quasi-steady model, constructed from steady-state flow measurements. As the opening time of the valve was varied, the signal due to swirl evacuation showed an initial overshoot with respect to quasi-steady behavior, after which it gradually decayed to quasi-steady behavior for tangential injection times long compared to the convection time in the pipe upstream of the nozzle. This demonstrates that the acoustic signal can be used to obtain quantitative information concerning the time dependence of the swirl in the system. This could be useful for understanding the dynamics of flow in engines with swirl-stabilized combustion. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Article number175
JournalExperiments in fluids
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


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