Polymers with C=C bonds have been modified by reaction with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI). Addition products were obtained in yields varying from 60% to 75%. Reaction of these products with NaOH yielded polyelectrolytes with sulfamate and carboxylate groups, whereas from the reaction with NH4OH polyelectrolytes with sulfamate and carbonamide groups, were obtained. The polyelectrolytes showed anticoagulant activity depending on the structure and on the presence of both sulfamate and carboxylate groups. These groups are essential for the anticoagulant activity, because N-S bond cleavage in the sulfamate groups as well as substitution of carboxylate by carbonamide groups resulted in loss of activity. From the recalcification times of bovine plasma, it could be concluded that the most active polyelectrolyte had an activity of 6-7% compared with heparin. However, determination of the activated clotting time of blood from rabbits showed that this compound had an in vivo activity of 50% in comparison with heparin.