In the Netherlands, six primary schools recently participated in a pilot program, creating an educational environment in which children use a tablet PC. In these six schools, two studies are conducted. The first study highlights the process by which primary schools adopted tablet PCs by means of interviews based on diffusion of innovation theory. All stages are discussed: Knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation. Two tablet systems are considered: closed and open systems. In the second study, a questionnaire was administered among primary school children in the pilot schools. Factors that affected the general attitude towards tablet PCs are perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, interest in the task and independence. Social influence and prior experience with tablets did not affect the overall attitude. The results of both studies provide several recommendations on how tablet PCs can contribute to educational improvements.