In this paper we study the following generalization of the job-shop scheduling problem. Each operation can be performed by one machine out of a set of machines given for this operation. The processing time does not depend on the machine which has been chosen for processing the operation. This problem arises in the area of flexible manufacturing. As a generalization of the jobshop problem it belongs to the hardest problems in combinatorial optimization. We show that an application of tabu search techniques to this problem yields excellent results for benchmark problems.
Hurink, J. L., Jurisch, B., & Thole, M. (1994). Tabu search for the job-shop scheduling problem with multi-purpose machines. OR Spectrum = OR Spektrum, 15(4), 205-215. [10.1007/BF01719451]. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01719451