Yttria-stabilized zirconia powders were prepared in the composition range of 3 to 13 at% yttria. The hydrolysis-gel precipitation technique was used, starting from metal alkoxides or chlorides. In the composition range between 5 and 10 at% yttria, the materials sintered at 1250°C have a fully tetragonal structure. The density was higher than 95% and the grain sizes can be varied between 0.1 and 0.5μm depending on the preparation conditions. The fracture toughness KIC amounts 6 to 11 MPam but is not dependent on the composition. The transformation toughening mechanism and the properties of the tetragonal phase itself play an important role in the increase of KIC compared with cubic materials. The magnitude of the oxygen-ion conductivity value is comparable with that for cubic materials.
Keizer, K., van Hemert, M., van de Graaf, M. A. C. G., & Burggraaf, A. J. (1985). Tetragonal zirconia: Wet chemical preparation, mechanical and electrical properties. Solid state ionics, 16, 67-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(85)90025-6