The “3P Challenge”: Gaming and Reflecting on Partnership Meaning within Long-Term Infrastructure Contracts

Camilo Andres Benitez Avila, Andreas Hartmann, Geert Dewulf

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This paper introduces the “3P challenge”, a serious game on the dual position of public and private managers as members of temporal and permanent organizations that incorporates the conceptualization of multi-level governance structure of temporal organizing from a critical realist perspective. Its gaming cycle aims at activating participants reflexivity to consider competing demands in PPP contexts. In this regard, the game can serve as a research tool for capturing insights into adversarial and collaborative interactions in the ex-post phase of PPPs, as well as a space for reflecting on governing issues and activity in the ex-post phase of PPP. Based on two gamming sessions with Dutch practitioners and civil engineering students, we discuss how the game provides insights into the creative enactment of PPP clauses in the Netherlands, the need to better understand how collaborative relationships emerge from the creative enactment of contractual penalties as well as a situational dimension of opportunism.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Engineering Project Organization Conference, EPOC 2019
Subtitle of host publication25-27 June 2019, Vail, Colorado, USA
EditorsPaul Chinowsky, John Taylor
Place of PublicationVail, CO
Number of pages37
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventEngineering Project Organization Conference 2019: A Challenge Summit - Vail, United States
Duration: 25 Jun 201927 Jun 2019
Conference number: 17

Publication series

NameWorking Paper Proceedings


ConferenceEngineering Project Organization Conference 2019
Abbreviated titleEPOC 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Public-private partnerships
  • Serious gaming
  • Ex-post governing
  • Reflexivity
  • Critical realism


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