The ARMM system: An optimized mobile electromagnetic coil for non-linear actuation of flexible surgical instruments

J. Sikorski (Corresponding Author), C.M. Heunis (Corresponding Author), Federico Franco, S. Misra

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    Abstract

    Automation of flexible surgical instruments requires development of robotic technologies capable of small-scale power transmission. Magnetic actuation has successfully been used for that purpose. Nevertheless, current systems for magnetic actuation suffer from small workspaces or poor bandwidth of magnetic field control. In this work we design, develop, and test a novel magnetic actuation system called Advanced Robotics for Magnetic Manipulation (ARMM). The ARMM system employs a 6DoF mobile electromagnetic coil capable of generating prescribed magnetic fields and gradients.The mobile coil approach allows for easy scaling of the actuation workspace, which depends on the range of robotic arm and in our case spans up to 1.3 meters. Due to limited end-effector payload of robotic arm used in the ARMM system, the mobile coil has been designed using an optimization routine. For given mass and heat dissipation constraints, this routine provides the coil geometry, which maximizes the average magnetic field generated in the target region. Since the Vacoflux core of the fabricated coil saturates within operational conditions, we propose an actuation strategy employing an online-updated iterative map technique. Using this map, the ARMM system allows for precise generation of prescribed magnetic fields and gradients at the point of interest, while taking into account the effects of the non-linearities due to core saturation. The strategy is validated experimentally, showing the average error of 2.34% for magnetic field and 7.20% for magnetic field gradient.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalIEEE transactions on magnetics
    Volume55
    Issue number9
    Early online date19 Jun 2019
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

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    Robotics
    Magnetic fields
    Robotic arms
    End effectors
    Power transmission
    Heat losses
    Automation
    Bandwidth
    Geometry

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    title = "The ARMM system: An optimized mobile electromagnetic coil for non-linear actuation of flexible surgical instruments",
    abstract = "Automation of flexible surgical instruments requires development of robotic technologies capable of small-scale power transmission. Magnetic actuation has successfully been used for that purpose. Nevertheless, current systems for magnetic actuation suffer from small workspaces or poor bandwidth of magnetic field control. In this work we design, develop, and test a novel magnetic actuation system called Advanced Robotics for Magnetic Manipulation (ARMM). The ARMM system employs a 6DoF mobile electromagnetic coil capable of generating prescribed magnetic fields and gradients.The mobile coil approach allows for easy scaling of the actuation workspace, which depends on the range of robotic arm and in our case spans up to 1.3 meters. Due to limited end-effector payload of robotic arm used in the ARMM system, the mobile coil has been designed using an optimization routine. For given mass and heat dissipation constraints, this routine provides the coil geometry, which maximizes the average magnetic field generated in the target region. Since the Vacoflux core of the fabricated coil saturates within operational conditions, we propose an actuation strategy employing an online-updated iterative map technique. Using this map, the ARMM system allows for precise generation of prescribed magnetic fields and gradients at the point of interest, while taking into account the effects of the non-linearities due to core saturation. The strategy is validated experimentally, showing the average error of 2.34{\%} for magnetic field and 7.20{\%} for magnetic field gradient.",
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    AU - Franco, Federico

    AU - Misra, S.

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    N2 - Automation of flexible surgical instruments requires development of robotic technologies capable of small-scale power transmission. Magnetic actuation has successfully been used for that purpose. Nevertheless, current systems for magnetic actuation suffer from small workspaces or poor bandwidth of magnetic field control. In this work we design, develop, and test a novel magnetic actuation system called Advanced Robotics for Magnetic Manipulation (ARMM). The ARMM system employs a 6DoF mobile electromagnetic coil capable of generating prescribed magnetic fields and gradients.The mobile coil approach allows for easy scaling of the actuation workspace, which depends on the range of robotic arm and in our case spans up to 1.3 meters. Due to limited end-effector payload of robotic arm used in the ARMM system, the mobile coil has been designed using an optimization routine. For given mass and heat dissipation constraints, this routine provides the coil geometry, which maximizes the average magnetic field generated in the target region. Since the Vacoflux core of the fabricated coil saturates within operational conditions, we propose an actuation strategy employing an online-updated iterative map technique. Using this map, the ARMM system allows for precise generation of prescribed magnetic fields and gradients at the point of interest, while taking into account the effects of the non-linearities due to core saturation. The strategy is validated experimentally, showing the average error of 2.34% for magnetic field and 7.20% for magnetic field gradient.

    AB - Automation of flexible surgical instruments requires development of robotic technologies capable of small-scale power transmission. Magnetic actuation has successfully been used for that purpose. Nevertheless, current systems for magnetic actuation suffer from small workspaces or poor bandwidth of magnetic field control. In this work we design, develop, and test a novel magnetic actuation system called Advanced Robotics for Magnetic Manipulation (ARMM). The ARMM system employs a 6DoF mobile electromagnetic coil capable of generating prescribed magnetic fields and gradients.The mobile coil approach allows for easy scaling of the actuation workspace, which depends on the range of robotic arm and in our case spans up to 1.3 meters. Due to limited end-effector payload of robotic arm used in the ARMM system, the mobile coil has been designed using an optimization routine. For given mass and heat dissipation constraints, this routine provides the coil geometry, which maximizes the average magnetic field generated in the target region. Since the Vacoflux core of the fabricated coil saturates within operational conditions, we propose an actuation strategy employing an online-updated iterative map technique. Using this map, the ARMM system allows for precise generation of prescribed magnetic fields and gradients at the point of interest, while taking into account the effects of the non-linearities due to core saturation. The strategy is validated experimentally, showing the average error of 2.34% for magnetic field and 7.20% for magnetic field gradient.

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