The Association between Hypoxia-Induced Low Activity and Apoptosis Strongly Resembles That between TTX-Induced Silencing and Apoptosis

Domitilla Taxis Di Bordonia E Valnigra, Gerco C. Hassink, Marloes R. Levers, Monica Frega, Jeannette Hofmeijer, Michel J.A.M. van Putten, Joost Le Feber*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
56 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

In the penumbra of a brain infarct, neurons initially remain structurally intact, but perfusion is insufficient to maintain neuronal activity at physiological levels. Improving neuronal recovery in the penumbra has large potential to advance recovery of stroke patients, but penumbral pathology is incompletely understood, and treatments are scarce. We hypothesize that low activity in the penumbra is associated with apoptosis and thus contributes to irreversible neuronal damage. We explored the putative relationship between low neuronal activity and apoptosis in cultured neurons exposed to variable durations of hypoxia or TTX. We combined electrophysiology and live apoptosis staining in 42 cultures, and compared effects of hypoxia and TTX silencing in terms of network activity and apoptosis. Hypoxia rapidly reduced network activity, but cultures showed limited apoptosis during the first 12 h. After 24 h, widespread apoptosis had occurred. This was associated with full activity recovery observed upon reoxygenation within 12 h, but not after 24 h. Similarly, TTX exposure strongly reduced activity, with full recovery upon washout within 12 h, but not after 24 h. Mean temporal evolution of apoptosis in TTX-treated cultures was the same as in hypoxic cultures. These results suggest that prolonged low activity may be a common factor in the pathways towards apoptosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2754
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume23
Issue number5
Early online date2 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Electrophysiological activity
  • In vitro model
  • Ischemic penumbra
  • Live staining
  • TTX

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