Very deep trenches (up to 200 μm) with high aspect ratios (up to 10) in silicon and polymers are etched using a fluorine-based plasma (SF6/O2/CHF3). Isotropic, positively and negatively (i.e. reverse) tapered as well as fully vertical walls with smooth surfaces are achieved by controlling the plasma chemistry. A convenient way to find the processing conditions needed for a vertical wall is described: the black silicon method. This new procedure is checked for three different reactive ion etchers (RIE), two parallel-plate reactors and a hexode. The influence of the RF power, pressure and gas mixture on the profile will be shown. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photos are included to demonstrate the black silicon method, the influence of the gases on the profile, and the use of this method in fabricating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).
Jansen, H. V., de Boer, M. J., Legtenberg, R., & Elwenspoek, M. C. (1995). The black silicon method: A universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control. Journal of micromechanics and microengineering, 5(5), 115-120. https://doi.org/10.1088/0960-1317/5/2/015