The effect of continuous, nonlinearly transformed visual feedback on rapid aiming movements.

Martina Rieger, Willem B. Verwey, Cristina Massen

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We investigated the ability to adjust to nonlinear transformations that allow people to control external systems like machines and tools. Earlier research (Verwey and Heuer 2007) showed that in the presence of just terminal feedback participants develop an internal model of such transformations that operates at a relatively early processing level (before or at amplitude specification). In this study, we investigated the level of operation of the internal model after practicing with continuous visual feedback. Participants executed rapid aiming movements, for which a nonlinear relationship existed between the target amplitude seen on the computer screen and the required movement amplitude of the hand on a digitizing tablet. Participants adjusted to the external transformation by developing an internal model. Despite continuous feedback, explicit awareness of the transformation did not develop and the internal model still operated at the same early processing level as with terminal feedback. Thus with rapid aiming movements, the type of feedback may not matter for the locus of operation of the internal model.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalExperimental brain research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • IR-73427
  • METIS-253152

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