Background: Vitamin K occurs in the diet as phylloquinone and menaquinones. Observational studies have shown that both phylloquinone and menaquinone intake might reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, the effect of vitamin K on vascular calcification is unknown.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess if menaquinone supplementation, compared to placebo, decreases vascular calcification in people with type 2 diabetes and known CVD.
Methods: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned men and women with type 2 diabetes and CVD to 360 μg/d menaquinone-7 (MK-7) or placebo for 6 mo. Femoral arterial calcification at baseline and 6 mo was measured with 18sodium fluoride positron emission tomography (18F-NaF PET) scans as target-to-background ratios (TBRs), a promising technique to detect active calcification. Calcification mass on conventional computed tomography (CT) scan was measured as secondary outcome. Dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) concentrations were measured to assess compliance. Linear regression analyses were performed with either TBR or CT calcification at follow-up as the dependent variable, and treatment and baseline TBR or CT calcification as independent variables.
Results: We randomly assigned 35 patients to the MK-7 group (33 completed follow-up) and 33 to the placebo group (27 completed follow-up). After the 6-mo intervention, TBR tended to increase in the MK-7 group compared with placebo (0.25; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.51; P = 0.06), although this was not significant. Log-transformed CT calcification mass did not increase in the intervention group compared with placebo (0.50; 95% CI: -0.23, 1.36; P = 0.18). MK-7 supplementation significantly reduced dp-ucMGP compared with placebo (-205.6 pmol/L; 95% CI: -255.8, -155.3 pmol/L). No adverse events were reported.
Conclusion: MK-7 supplementation tended to increase active calcification measured with 18F-NaF PET activity compared with placebo, but no effect was found on conventional CT. Additional research investigating the interpretation of 18F-NaF PET activity is necessary. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02839044.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Vascular calcification
- Vitamin K