The effect of multiple thermal cycles on Ti-6Al-4V deposits fabricated by wire-arc directed energy deposition: Microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance

Zidong Lin, Constantinos Goulas, Yan Li, Yongzhe Fa, Lixue Qiao, Zhen Sun, Rui Cao, Wei Ya, Xinghua Yu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Thermal cycles have an important effect on the microstructure and properties of the components fabricated by wire-arc directed energy deposition (wire-arc DED). In this study, a Gleeble thermal-mechanical simulator was adopted to create closer-to-reality thermal cycles with the assistance of a numerical simulation model and experimental Ti-6Al-4V deposition. Step-by-step microstructure evolution, including αm, retained β, and GB α, microhardness gradual variation, and the corrosion resistance change before and after the entire thermal cycle were investigated. Therefore, combining phase orientation and high-magnification morphology, transformed and untransformed α that occurred in low- and medium-temperature thermal cycles can be distinguished. After the entire thermal cycle, αm laths coarsened from ∼1 µm to ∼1.2 µm, and the content of retained β phase became more and more. The αm formed around grain boundaries partially disappeared and was occupied by α laths from the inner grain. GB α was more continuously distributed along prior β grain boundaries due to its lower formation temperature during the subsequent thermal cycles that were occurring incomplete α→β transformation. The severe preferential orientation of α phases formed after the deposition and high-temperature thermal cycle was also alleviated through the twice low-temperature thermal cycles. Besides, the microhardness decreased from 318.78 ± 7.5 HV to 285.17 ± 5.3 HV after the high-temperature thermal cycle but eventually increased significantly to 330.5 ± 6.4 HV after experiencing the final low-temperature thermal cycle. The corrosion resistance decreased after the entire thermal cycle, indicating a performance difference between the top and bottom regions of the Ti-6Al-4 V component fabricated by wire-arc DED.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169614
JournalJournal of alloys and compounds
Volume947
Early online date11 Mar 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2023

Keywords

  • Corrosion resistance
  • Microhardness
  • Microstructure evolution
  • Thermal cycle
  • Ti-6Al-4V alloy
  • Wire-arc directed energy deposition (Wire-arc DED)
  • 2024 OA procedure

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