The effect of surface roughness on direct wafer bonding

C. Gui, Michael Curt Elwenspoek, Niels Roelof Tas, Johannes G.E. Gardeniers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

105 Citations (Scopus)
110 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

A theory is presented which describes the initial direct wafer bonding process. The effect of surface microroughness on the bondability is studied on the basis of the theory of contact and adhesion of elastic solids. An effective bonding energy, the maximum of which is the specific surface energy of adhesion, is proposed to describe the real binding energy of the bonding interface, including the influence of the wafer surface microroughness. Both the effective bonding energy and the real area of contact between rough surfaces depend on a dimensionless surface adhesion parameter, θ. Using the adhesion parameter as a measure, three kinds of wafer contact interfaces can be identified with respect to their bondability; viz. the nonbonding regime (θ>12), the bonding regime (θ<1), and the adherence regime (1<θ<12). Experimental data are in reasonable agreement with this theory.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)7448-7454
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of applied physics
Volume85
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 1999

Keywords

  • METIS-111692
  • IR-14600
  • EWI-13223

Cite this

@article{f198472a25004d6593a45a4cba953749,
title = "The effect of surface roughness on direct wafer bonding",
abstract = "A theory is presented which describes the initial direct wafer bonding process. The effect of surface microroughness on the bondability is studied on the basis of the theory of contact and adhesion of elastic solids. An effective bonding energy, the maximum of which is the specific surface energy of adhesion, is proposed to describe the real binding energy of the bonding interface, including the influence of the wafer surface microroughness. Both the effective bonding energy and the real area of contact between rough surfaces depend on a dimensionless surface adhesion parameter, θ. Using the adhesion parameter as a measure, three kinds of wafer contact interfaces can be identified with respect to their bondability; viz. the nonbonding regime (θ>12), the bonding regime (θ<1), and the adherence regime (1<θ<12). Experimental data are in reasonable agreement with this theory.",
keywords = "METIS-111692, IR-14600, EWI-13223",
author = "C. Gui and Elwenspoek, {Michael Curt} and Tas, {Niels Roelof} and Gardeniers, {Johannes G.E.}",
year = "1999",
month = "5",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1063/1.369377",
language = "Undefined",
volume = "85",
pages = "7448--7454",
journal = "Journal of applied physics",
issn = "0021-8979",
publisher = "American Institute of Physics",
number = "10",

}

The effect of surface roughness on direct wafer bonding. / Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

In: Journal of applied physics, Vol. 85, No. 10, 15.05.1999, p. 7448-7454.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of surface roughness on direct wafer bonding

AU - Gui, C.

AU - Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

AU - Tas, Niels Roelof

AU - Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

PY - 1999/5/15

Y1 - 1999/5/15

N2 - A theory is presented which describes the initial direct wafer bonding process. The effect of surface microroughness on the bondability is studied on the basis of the theory of contact and adhesion of elastic solids. An effective bonding energy, the maximum of which is the specific surface energy of adhesion, is proposed to describe the real binding energy of the bonding interface, including the influence of the wafer surface microroughness. Both the effective bonding energy and the real area of contact between rough surfaces depend on a dimensionless surface adhesion parameter, θ. Using the adhesion parameter as a measure, three kinds of wafer contact interfaces can be identified with respect to their bondability; viz. the nonbonding regime (θ>12), the bonding regime (θ<1), and the adherence regime (1<θ<12). Experimental data are in reasonable agreement with this theory.

AB - A theory is presented which describes the initial direct wafer bonding process. The effect of surface microroughness on the bondability is studied on the basis of the theory of contact and adhesion of elastic solids. An effective bonding energy, the maximum of which is the specific surface energy of adhesion, is proposed to describe the real binding energy of the bonding interface, including the influence of the wafer surface microroughness. Both the effective bonding energy and the real area of contact between rough surfaces depend on a dimensionless surface adhesion parameter, θ. Using the adhesion parameter as a measure, three kinds of wafer contact interfaces can be identified with respect to their bondability; viz. the nonbonding regime (θ>12), the bonding regime (θ<1), and the adherence regime (1<θ<12). Experimental data are in reasonable agreement with this theory.

KW - METIS-111692

KW - IR-14600

KW - EWI-13223

U2 - 10.1063/1.369377

DO - 10.1063/1.369377

M3 - Article

VL - 85

SP - 7448

EP - 7454

JO - Journal of applied physics

JF - Journal of applied physics

SN - 0021-8979

IS - 10

ER -