In this paper the theory of water electrolysis in a closed electrochemical cell, that contains two electrodes, an electrolyte and a pressure sensor is described. From the leakage and electrochemical experiments done with this macrocell it is possible to obtain information about the applicability of the electrochemical principle in a closed cavity, the choice of the electrodes and electrolyte, and different types of leakage. To control the pressure of the electrochemical actuator automatically, an electronic feedback system was connected to the cell. A value of the pressure is set and the regulator will actuate the electrochemical cell in such a way to get the desired pressure.
Rusu, C. R., Neagu, C., Jansen, H. V., Gardeniers, J. G. E., & Elwenspoek, M. C. (2000). The electrolysis of water: An actuation principle for MEMS with a big opportunity. Mechatronics, 10(4), 571-581. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0957-4158(99)00066-5