In the past decade, reading has moved massively from printed paper to digital displays. Thus far, large-scale surveys have not shown clear-cut effects of ICT use on reading literacy. This study addresses the impact of per country increases in online chatting, using data from the worldwide PISA surveys in 2009 and 2018 covering 63 countries. During that period, online chatting increased substantially in nearly every country, but the rate of increase varied considerably across countries. The empirical evidence shows a strong correlation of per country increase in online chatting among 15-year-olds with per country declines in both reading literacy and awareness of useful reading strategies.
- Cultural and social implications
- Evaluation methodologies
- Social media
- Teaching/learning strategies