The impact of frequency, pattern, intensity, and type of alcohol consumption, and its combined effect with smoking on inflammation, lipid profile, and the risk of myocardial infarction

Ritienne Attard, Philip Dingli, Carine J.M. Doggen, Karen Cassar, Rosienne Farrugia, Stephanie Bezzina Wettinger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Aim: To determine the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) associated with pattern, frequency, and intensity of alcohol consumption, type of alcoholic beverage, and the combined effect of alcohol and smoking on risk of MI, inflammation, and lipid profile. Method: A total of 423 cases with a first MI and 465 controls from the Maltese Acute Myocardial Infarction (MAMI) Study were analysed. Data was collected through an extensive interviewer-led questionnaire, along with measurements of various blood parameters. Medians and the Mann–Whitney test were used to assess effect of different drinking patterns, frequency, intensity, and smoking and drinking combinations on hs-CRP and lipid profile. Odds ratios, adjusted for the conventional risk factors of MI (AdjORs), were calculated as an estimate of the relative risk of MI. Results: Regular alcohol consumption protected against MI [AdjOR 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9)] while daily binge drinking increased risk [AdjOR 5.0 (95% CI 1.6–15.0)] relative to regular drinkers who did not binge drink. Whereas moderate weekly consumption of wine protected against MI, high weekly consumption of beer conveyed a deleterious effect. Alcohol consumption decreased risk of MI independent of smoking status. Frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher HDL-, non-HDL-, total cholesterol and triglycerides, and lower hs-CRP. Total and HDL-cholesterol increased and BMI decreased with increasing quantity of weekly alcohol consumption relative to the non-regular drinkers. The effect of smoking on lipid profile and hs-CRP was less pronounced in current drinkers than in those who were non-regular drinkers. Conclusion: The protective effect of alcohol consumption was dependent on the pattern, frequency, type, and intensity of alcohol consumed. Alcohol modified the effects of smoking on the lipid profile. Regular drinking attenuated the effect of smoking on hs-CRP and lipid profile.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Public Health (Germany)
Early online date14 Dec 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 14 Dec 2019

Keywords

  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Inflammation
  • Lipid profile
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Alcohol consumption

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