The impact of passive and active smoking on inflammation, lipid profile and the risk of myocardial infarction

Ritienne Attard, Philip Dingli, Carine J.M. Doggen, Karen Cassar, Rosienne Farrugia, Stephanie Bezzina Wettinger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
73 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the effect of passive smoking, active smoking and smoking cessation on inflammation, lipid profile and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods: A total of 423 cases with a first MI and 465 population controls from the Maltese Acute Myocardial Infarction (MAMI) Study were analysed. Data were collected through an interviewer-led questionnaire, and morning fasting blood samples were obtained. ORs adjusted for the conventional risk factors of MI (aORs) were calculated as an estimate of the relative risk of MI. The influence of smoking on biochemical parameters was determined among controls.

Results: Current smokers had a 2.7-fold (95% CI 1.7 to 4.2) and ex-smokers a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.4) increased risk of MI. Risk increased with increasing pack-years and was accompanied by an increase in high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels and an abnormal lipid profile. Smoking cessation was associated with lower triglyceride levels. Exposure to passive smoking increased the risk of MI (aOR 3.2 (95% CI 1.7 to 6.3)), with the OR being higher for individuals exposed to passive smoking in a home rather than in a public setting (aOR 2.0 (95% CI 0.7 to 5.6) vs aOR 1.2 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.0)). Passive smoke exposure was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio compared with individuals not exposed to passive smoking.

Conclusions: Both active and passive smoking are strong risk factors for MI. This risk increased with increasing pack-years and decreased with smoking cessation. Such effects may be partly mediated through the influence of smoking on inflammation and lipid metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000620
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalOpen Heart
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017

Keywords

  • Active smoking
  • Inflammation
  • Lipid profile, Myocardial Infarction
  • Passive smoking

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