Ground surface topography influences the spatial distribution of earthquake-induced ground shaking. This study shows the influence of topography on seismic amplification during the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Earth surface topography scatters and reflects seismic waves, which causes spatial variation in seismic response. We performed a 3-D simulation of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake in Muzaffarabad with the spectral finite-element method. The moment tensor solution of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake was used as the seismic source. Our results showed amplification of seismic response on ridges and de-amplification in valleys. It was found that slopes facing away from the source received an amplified seismic response, and that 98 % of the highly damaged areas were located in the topographically amplified seismic response zone.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Natural hazards and earth system sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 5 Feb 2020|