The influence of storms on sand wave evolution: a nonlinear idealized modeling approach

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    Abstract

    We present a new 2DV nonlinear process-based morphodynamic model to investigate the effects of storms, specifically wind-driven flow and wind waves, on finite amplitude tidal sand wave evolution. Simulations are performed on periodic domains of two lengths: (i) on a 350-m domain, comparable to the wavelength of observed sand waves, we study the evolution toward equilibrium shapes, and (ii) on a 4-km domain, we study the evolution from a randomly perturbed seabed. Our model results demonstrate that both wind-driven flow and wind waves reduce sand wave height and tend to increase wavelength. Wind-driven flow breaks the tidal symmetry, resulting in horizontal sand wave asymmetry and migration. Waves alone do not induce migration but can enhance migration induced by, for example, tidal asymmetry and wind-driven flow. On the 350-m domain, we further find that migration rates decrease with increasing sand wave height. However, in an irregular sand wave field, large sand waves tend to overtake the smaller ones, suggesting a complicated interaction among neighboring bed forms. The above results concern steady state storm conditions. However, since storms occur on an intermittent basis, we also simulated a synthetic storm climate consisting of alternating short periods of storm conditions and long periods of fair-weather conditions. Simulations reveal a dynamic equilibrium with sand wave heights significantly below those obtained for tide-only conditions, also for relatively short storm duration. Our work identifies mechanisms that explain why sand wave heights are generally overpredicted by numerical models that do not include storm processes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2070-2086
    Number of pages17
    JournalJournal of geophysical research. Earth surface
    Volume123
    Issue number9
    Early online date2 Aug 2018
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018

    Fingerprint

    sand wave
    wave height
    modeling
    wind wave
    asymmetry
    wavelength
    morphodynamics
    bedform
    wave field
    simulation
    symmetry
    tide

    Keywords

    • UT-Hybrid-D
    • numerical modeling
    • storm effects
    • tidal sand waves
    • wind waves
    • wind-driven flow
    • nonlinear dynamics

    Cite this

    @article{3f5bbec5130d4e5a9394fe5161ad2642,
    title = "The influence of storms on sand wave evolution: a nonlinear idealized modeling approach",
    abstract = "We present a new 2DV nonlinear process-based morphodynamic model to investigate the effects of storms, specifically wind-driven flow and wind waves, on finite amplitude tidal sand wave evolution. Simulations are performed on periodic domains of two lengths: (i) on a 350-m domain, comparable to the wavelength of observed sand waves, we study the evolution toward equilibrium shapes, and (ii) on a 4-km domain, we study the evolution from a randomly perturbed seabed. Our model results demonstrate that both wind-driven flow and wind waves reduce sand wave height and tend to increase wavelength. Wind-driven flow breaks the tidal symmetry, resulting in horizontal sand wave asymmetry and migration. Waves alone do not induce migration but can enhance migration induced by, for example, tidal asymmetry and wind-driven flow. On the 350-m domain, we further find that migration rates decrease with increasing sand wave height. However, in an irregular sand wave field, large sand waves tend to overtake the smaller ones, suggesting a complicated interaction among neighboring bed forms. The above results concern steady state storm conditions. However, since storms occur on an intermittent basis, we also simulated a synthetic storm climate consisting of alternating short periods of storm conditions and long periods of fair-weather conditions. Simulations reveal a dynamic equilibrium with sand wave heights significantly below those obtained for tide-only conditions, also for relatively short storm duration. Our work identifies mechanisms that explain why sand wave heights are generally overpredicted by numerical models that do not include storm processes.",
    keywords = "UT-Hybrid-D, numerical modeling, storm effects, tidal sand waves, wind waves, wind-driven flow, nonlinear dynamics",
    author = "G.H.P. Campmans and P.C. Roos and {de Vriend}, H.J. and S.J.M.H. Hulscher",
    note = "Wiley deal",
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    language = "English",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The influence of storms on sand wave evolution

    T2 - a nonlinear idealized modeling approach

    AU - Campmans, G.H.P.

    AU - Roos, P.C.

    AU - de Vriend, H.J.

    AU - Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    N1 - Wiley deal

    PY - 2018/9

    Y1 - 2018/9

    N2 - We present a new 2DV nonlinear process-based morphodynamic model to investigate the effects of storms, specifically wind-driven flow and wind waves, on finite amplitude tidal sand wave evolution. Simulations are performed on periodic domains of two lengths: (i) on a 350-m domain, comparable to the wavelength of observed sand waves, we study the evolution toward equilibrium shapes, and (ii) on a 4-km domain, we study the evolution from a randomly perturbed seabed. Our model results demonstrate that both wind-driven flow and wind waves reduce sand wave height and tend to increase wavelength. Wind-driven flow breaks the tidal symmetry, resulting in horizontal sand wave asymmetry and migration. Waves alone do not induce migration but can enhance migration induced by, for example, tidal asymmetry and wind-driven flow. On the 350-m domain, we further find that migration rates decrease with increasing sand wave height. However, in an irregular sand wave field, large sand waves tend to overtake the smaller ones, suggesting a complicated interaction among neighboring bed forms. The above results concern steady state storm conditions. However, since storms occur on an intermittent basis, we also simulated a synthetic storm climate consisting of alternating short periods of storm conditions and long periods of fair-weather conditions. Simulations reveal a dynamic equilibrium with sand wave heights significantly below those obtained for tide-only conditions, also for relatively short storm duration. Our work identifies mechanisms that explain why sand wave heights are generally overpredicted by numerical models that do not include storm processes.

    AB - We present a new 2DV nonlinear process-based morphodynamic model to investigate the effects of storms, specifically wind-driven flow and wind waves, on finite amplitude tidal sand wave evolution. Simulations are performed on periodic domains of two lengths: (i) on a 350-m domain, comparable to the wavelength of observed sand waves, we study the evolution toward equilibrium shapes, and (ii) on a 4-km domain, we study the evolution from a randomly perturbed seabed. Our model results demonstrate that both wind-driven flow and wind waves reduce sand wave height and tend to increase wavelength. Wind-driven flow breaks the tidal symmetry, resulting in horizontal sand wave asymmetry and migration. Waves alone do not induce migration but can enhance migration induced by, for example, tidal asymmetry and wind-driven flow. On the 350-m domain, we further find that migration rates decrease with increasing sand wave height. However, in an irregular sand wave field, large sand waves tend to overtake the smaller ones, suggesting a complicated interaction among neighboring bed forms. The above results concern steady state storm conditions. However, since storms occur on an intermittent basis, we also simulated a synthetic storm climate consisting of alternating short periods of storm conditions and long periods of fair-weather conditions. Simulations reveal a dynamic equilibrium with sand wave heights significantly below those obtained for tide-only conditions, also for relatively short storm duration. Our work identifies mechanisms that explain why sand wave heights are generally overpredicted by numerical models that do not include storm processes.

    KW - UT-Hybrid-D

    KW - numerical modeling

    KW - storm effects

    KW - tidal sand waves

    KW - wind waves

    KW - wind-driven flow

    KW - nonlinear dynamics

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    U2 - 10.1029/2018JF004616

    DO - 10.1029/2018JF004616

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    JO - Journal of geophysical research. Earth surface

    JF - Journal of geophysical research. Earth surface

    SN - 2169-9003

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