The influence of time pressure and cue validity on response force in an S1-S2 paradigm

Piotr Jaśkowski, Robert Henricus Johannes van der Lubbe, Bernd Wauschkuhn, Edmund Wascher, Rolf Verleger

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Hypotheses about variations of response force have emphasised the influences of arousal and of motor preparation. To study both types of influences in one experiment, the effects of time pressure and of validity of S1 were investigated in tasks wherein a first stimulus (S1) indicated the most probable response (80% valid) required after a second stimulus (S2). Under time pressure, responses were executed more forcefully while, as could be expected, response times were shorter and errors were more frequent. This pattern of results was not only obtained when time pressure was varied between blocks, but also when varied from trial to trial, by information given by S2. Also invalidly cued responses were executed more forcefully but, as could be expected, in contrast to time pressure, response times were longer and errors were more frequent. The results demonstrate that latency and force of responses may vary in different directions. Ways are outlined on how current hypotheses must be extended in order to account for these results.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)89-105
JournalActa psychologica
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2000


  • Cue validity
  • IR-76632
  • Time pressure
  • Response force
  • S1-S2 paradigm

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