The ion-step measuring method was used to determine absolute heparin concentrations in PBS and blood plasma with a Ta2O5 ISFET on to which a monolayer of protamine had been immobilized. Heparin is a highly negatively charged polysaccharide, which is used clinically to delay the clotting of blood. Protamine acts as an affinity ligand for heparin. The response of the ISFET system on a step-wise increase in the electrolyte concentration (a so-called ion-step) is a transient change of the output voltage, which is related to the surface charge density of the ISFET gate oxide. After 2 mins of incubation in a plasma sample containing heparin, the amplitude of the transient ISFET response to an ion-step showed a linear relation to the heparin concentration. In blood plasma, heparin concentrations between 0·3 and 2·0 Units/ml could be determined with an accuracy of ±0·08 Units/ml. Heparin concentrations in different plasma samples of heparinized patients were determined and compared with the APTT. No direct relation was found between the APTT and the heparin concentration, but this result was not surprising.
van Kerkhof, J. C., van Kerkhof, J. C., Bergveld, P., & Schasfoort, R. B. M. (1995). The ISFET based heparin sensor with a monolayer of protamine as affinity ligand. Biosensors and bioelectronics, 10(3-4), 269-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/0956-5663(95)96846-Q