The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

R. Zeeman, Pieter J. Dijkstra, Pauline B. van Wachem, Marja J.A. van Luyn, Marc Hendriks, Patrick T. Cahalan, Jan Feijen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE. Linearization of the experimental data resulted in a reaction order of 2 with respect to the amine groups in the PGE masking reaction, whereas a reaction order of 2.5 was obtained in the BDDGE crosslinking reaction. The reaction orders were independent of the pH in the range of 8.5-10.5 and the reagent concentration (1-4 wt %). The reaction order with respect to epoxide groups was equal to 1 for both reagents. As expected, the reaction rate was favored by a higher reagent concentration and a higher solution pH. Because the BDDGE crosslinking reaction occurs via two distinct reaction steps, the content of pendant epoxide groups in the collagen matrix was determined by treating the collagen with either O-phosphoryl ethanolamine or lysine methyl ester. The increase in either phosphor or primary amine groups was related to the content of pendant groups. Crosslinking at pH 9.0 resulted in a low reaction rate but in a high crosslink efficacy, especially after prolonged reaction times. A maximum concentration of pendant epoxide groups was detected after 50 h. Reaction at pH 10.0 was faster, but a lower crosslinking efficacy was obtained. At pH 10.0, the ratio between pendant epoxide groups and crosslinks was almost equal to 1 during the course of the crosslinking reaction.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)541-548
JournalJournal of biomedical materials research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2000


  • METIS-106562
  • IR-71611
  • Collagen
  • Cross-linking
  • pendant groups
  • Kinetics
  • Epoxy compounds

Cite this