The MADE reference information model for interoperable pervasive telemedicine systems

L.S.N. Fung, V.M. Jones, H.J. Hermens

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    Objectives: The main objective is to develop and validate a reference information model (RIM) to support semantic interoperability of pervasive telemedicine systems. The RIM is one component within a larger, computer-interpretable "MADE language" developed by the authors in the context of the MobiGuide project. To validate our RIM, we applied it to a clinical guideline for patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: The RIM is derived from a generic data flow model of disease management which comprises a network of four types of concurrent processes: Monitoring (M), Analysis (A), Decision (D) and Effectuation (E). This resulting MADE RIM, which was specified using the formal Vienna Development Method (VDM), includes six main, high-level data types representing measurements, observations, abstractions, action plans, action instructions and control instructions. Results: The authors applied the MADE RIM to the complete GDM guideline and derived from it a domain information model (DIM) comprising 61 archetypes, specifically 1 measurement, 8 observation, 10 abstraction, 18 action plan, 3 action instruction and 21 control instruction archetypes. It was observed that there are six generic patterns for transforming different guideline elements into MADE archetypes, although a direct mapping does not exist in some cases. Most notable examples are notifications to the patient and/or clinician as well as decision conditions which pertain to specific stages in the therapy. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that the MADE RIM is suitable for modelling clinical data in the design of pervasive telemedicine systems. Together with the other components of the MADE language, the MADE RIM supports development of pervasive telemedicine systems that are interoperable and independent of particular clinical applications.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)180-186
    Number of pages21
    JournalMethods of information in medicine
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2017


    • BSS-Technology supported cognitive training
    • Semantic Interoperability
    • Pervasive Healthcare
    • Telemedicine
    • Reference information model
    • 2023 OA procedure


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