The Marriage Between Safety and Cybersecurity: Still Practicing

Mariëlle I.A. Stoelinga*, Christina Kolb, Stefano Maria Nicoletti, Carlos Esteban Budde, Ernst Moritz Hahn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
94 Downloads (Pure)


Emerging technologies, like self-driving cars, drones, and the Internet-of-Things must not impose threats to people, neither due to accidental failures (safety), nor due to malicious attacks (security). As historically separated fields, safety and security are often analyzed in isolation. They are, however, heavily intertwined: measures that increase safety often decrease security and vice versa. Also, security vulnerabilities often cause safety hazards, e.g. in autonomous cars. Therefore, for effective decision-making, safety and security must be considered in combination.

This paper discusses three major challenges that a successful integration of safety and security faces: (1) The complex interaction between safety and security (2) The lack of efficient algorithms to compute system-level risk metrics (3) The lack of proper risk quantification methods. We will point out several research directions to tackle these challenges, exploiting novel combinations of mathematical game theory, stochastic model checking, as well as the Bayesian, fuzzy, and Dempster-Schafer frameworks for uncertainty reasoning. Finally, we report on early results in these directions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationModel Checking Software. SPIN 2021
Subtitle of host publication27th International Symposium, SPIN 2021, Virtual Event, July 12, 2021, Proceedings
EditorsAlfons Laarman, Ana Sokolova
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-84629-9
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-84628-2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Aug 2021
Event27th International SPIN Symposium on Model Checking of Software, SPIN 2021 - Virtual Conference
Duration: 14 Jul 202115 Jul 2021
Conference number: 27

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference27th International SPIN Symposium on Model Checking of Software, SPIN 2021
Abbreviated titleSPIN 2021
CityVirtual Conference


  • Safety
  • Security
  • Model-based
  • Interaction
  • Fault trees
  • Attack trees
  • Fault tree-attack tree integration
  • 22/2 OA procedure


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