The perception of the vertical dimension (3D) through the lens of different stakeholders in the property market of China

Yue Ying*, M. Koeva, M. Kuffer, Kwabena Obeng Asiama, Xia Li, J. Zevenbergen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


China has experienced fast urbanization with a growing urban population, which has inevitably led to the adoption of a vertical housing style with high-rise buildings. However, how people subjectively perceive the vertical dimension (3D) in the property market is neither adequately documented nor well understood. The 3D perception helps us to understand a myriad of social and psychological effects of living in high-rise buildings. We organized and conducted semi-structured expert interviews, focus groups, and the circulation and compilation of questionnaires in Xi’an, China, to investigate how different stakeholders in the property market perceive 3D. The results show that: (1) real estate developers do not adjust property prices for specific 3D factors, and the local government does not consider 3D in housing policies; (2) the current status of 3D modeling in Xi’an is still in the embryonic state; (3) 3D factors are highly valued by buyers but not well-understood by real estate developers and local government. In addition, 3D factors score higher than horizontal (2D) factors (1.12 to 0.88). Gender and age groups do not influence housing preferences concerning 2D and 3D factors. These findings provide valuable insights for real estate developers concerning pricing policies and the local government concerning housing policies. In the future, 3D perceptions and factors should be prioritized in order to improve urban infrastructure and ensure the increased availability of, and fair public access to welfare related to 3D in urban areas.
Original languageEnglish
Article number312
Pages (from-to)1-29
Number of pages29
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 19 Feb 2022




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