The reactive element effect; ionic processes of grain-boundary segregation and diffusion in chromium oxide scales

E.A. Polman, T. Fransen, P.J. Gellings

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The transport processes in chromium oxide reviewed here, are related to the basic ionic processes in oxide. Solid state science has been effective in describing the complicated diffusion-controlled oxide growth of chromium and chromia-forming alloys. Additions of reactive elements to chromia-forming alloys have a remarkably beneficial effect and this effect is also related to ionic transport processes in crystal lattices. Chromia-forming alloys are widely used in coal handling and conversion systems due to their good high-temperature corrosion properties; for industrial applications the requirement is that a good adherent protective oxide with a low diffusion of defects is formed. Recently, improved knowledge has been gained of the identity of the moving species and the values of the corresponding diffusion coefficients in chromia scales. STEM measurements give experimental support for the theory of grain-boundary segregation and blocking of grain-boundary diffusion by reactive elements. The current ideas on the transport in chromia and the role of rare earth additions on the corrosion behavior are reviewed. In addition calculations on crystal lattices and grain boundaries are discussed. The calculation on chromia have been beneficially influenced by earlier theoretical considerations on nickel oxide. Consequently, results on (doped) nickel oxide as well as chromium oxide are discussed
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)4497
JournalJournal of physics: Condensed matter
Issue number28
Publication statusPublished - 1989


  • IR-60638

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