The Saanen goat as an animal model for post-laryngectomy research: Practical implications

E.J. Olivier ten Hallers*, Henri A.M. Marres, Gerhard Rakhorst, John A. Jansen, Mathieu G. Sommers, Eduard B. van der Houwen, Harm K. Schutte, Theo G. van Kooten, Jan Paul Van Loon, Gijsbertus J. Verkerke

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    A modern way of voice rehabilitation after total laryngectomy includes the use of shunt valves and tracheostoma valves. Problems of fixation to the surrounding tissue are a major drawback in the use of the shunt valve, heat and moisture exchange (HME) filters and, especially, the tracheostoma valve. To solve these problems different tissue connectors were developed. The main objective was to test the feasibility of these prototypes in a new animal model. Here we discuss the results, problems and complications of the selected Saanen goat model. In this prospective laboratory study, 19 healthy adult female Saanen goats (Capra hircus) were used and observed post-surgically for 12 weeks. Selection criteria such as comparable anatomy to humans and easy handling were used for animal model development. Also a literature search using the Medline and the ISI Web of Science databases was performed. The anatomy of the Saanen goat was investigated in a separate postmortem study. Surgery consisted of a laryngotracheal separation and implantation of a tracheo-oesophageal and tracheostoma tissue connector with fibrin tissue glue. Postoperative care consisted of frequent stoma care, monitoring appetite, weight, vital signs and administration of antibiotics, analgesics and mucolytic agents. All animals survived the surgical procedure. However, postoperative care was extensive, labour intensive and was accompanied by several complications. Eleven animals died spontaneously before the end of the experiment. The tracheostoma tissue connector caused signs of local infection in all cases. There was no evidence of infection around the tracheo-oesophageal tissue connector in 18 cases. It was concluded that the use of goats in this tracheostoma model was associated with major complications and should, therefore, only be used for short-term experiments with intensive care. Additional research is needed to see if clinical application of the tissue connectors is possible in the future.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)270-284
    Number of pages15
    JournalLaboratory animals
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2007


    • Animal model
    • Goat
    • Laryngectomy
    • Postoperative care
    • Tracheostoma
    • Tracheostomy
    • Tracheotomy


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