The Surface adhesion parameter: A measure for wafer bondability

C. Gui, Michael Curt Elwenspoek, Niels Roelof Tas, Johannes G.E. Gardeniers

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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A theory is presented which describes the initial direct wafer bonding process. The effect of surface microroughness on the bondability is studied on the basis of the theory of contact and adhesion of elastic solids. An effective bonding energy, the maximum of which is the specific surface energy of adhesion, is proposed to describe the real binding energy of the bonding interface including the influence of the wafer surface microroughness. Both the effective bonding energy and the real area of contact between rough surfaces depend on a dimensionless surface adhesion parameter, θ. Using the adhesion parameter as a measure, three kinds of wafer contact interfaces can be identified with respect to their bondability; viz. the non-bonding regime (θ> approximately equals 12), the bonding regime (θ< approximately equals 1), and the adherence regime (1<θ<12). Experimental data are in agreement with this theory.
Original languageUndefined
Title of host publicationProceedings of the IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Place of PublicationPiscataway
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)0-7803-5194-0
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jan 1999
Event12th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, MEMS 1999 - Orlando, United States
Duration: 17 Jan 199921 Jan 1999
Conference number: 12

Publication series



Conference12th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, MEMS 1999
Abbreviated titleMEMS
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • EWI-13236
  • METIS-112704
  • IR-15822

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